Crime and murder rates have increased alarmingly in the Latin American and Caribbean region, something which is linked to gangs and organised crime. Scholars cite the lack of state presence and inadequate state capacity as being major factors behind the rise of gangs. However, research findings suggest that the manifestation of powerful gangs stems from political patronage and policies implemented in the 1960s.
Pawelz, Janina (2020). In bed with criminals: Gangs and Politics in Trinidad and Tobago. In: Urban Crime - An International Journal, Vol 1, No 2, pp. 54-75, ISSN2732-6187