External threats can endanger the stability of states, but so can internal upheaval and social dislocation. Increasing social division and a trend towards anti-liberalism can be currently observed in several European countries. Why is this happening? How are policymakers reacting to these developments? We attempt to find answers to these questions. In doing so, we pay close attention to social media. The ways in which Facebook, Twitter and other social media channels are used to spread illiberal messages is of particular interest to us in our research.

Beyond this, we analyse how democratically elected governments react to trends of this kind. What instruments they utilise, and might these instruments circumvent basic constitutional and democratic principles?